Top ETI Banner


GD&T Trainer: Fundamentals 2009
Based on ASME Y14.5-2009 

Goals and Objectives
Return to main page

Printable PDF

Lesson 1: Drawing Standards
Goal: Understand the importance of standards on engineering drawings.

  • Describe what an engineering drawing is
  • Explain the importance of an engineering drawing
  • List four consequences of engineering drawing errors
  • List the two primary dimensioning and tolerancing standards used globally
  • Describe which ASME standards cover dimensioning and tolerancing
  • Describe the role of dimensioning and tolerancing standards on engineering drawings
  • Identify which dimensioning and tolerancing standards apply to an engineering drawing

Lesson 2: Dimensions, Tolerances, and Notes Used on Drawings
Goal: Understand the types of dimensions, tolerances, and notes.

  • Describe three purposes of dimensions and tolerances
  • Identify which units of linear measurement apply on a drawing
  • Explain the options for expressing units of angular measurement
  • Explain three conventions used when metric units apply on a drawing
  • Describe three conventions used for angular dimensions
  • Describe what a dimension is
  • Describe what a tolerance is
  • Describe what a limit tolerance is
  • Describe what a plus-minus tolerance is
  • Describe what an equal bilateral tolerance is
  • Describe what an unequal bilateral tolerance is
  • Describe what a unilateral tolerance is
  • Interpret dimensional limits
  • Describe local, flag, and general notes on drawings
  • Describe why CAD models need to communicate permissible tolerances
  • Describe how CAD models communicate permissible tolerances

Lesson 3: Coordinate Tolerancing and GD&T
Goal: Understand why geometric tolerancing is superior to coordinate tolerancing

  • Describe what the coordinate tolerancing method is
  • Explain the six major shortcomings of coordinate tolerancing
  • Explain three potential consequences of using coordinate tolerances 
  • Describe three appropriate uses for coordinate tolerancing
  • Describe what the geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) system is
  • Describe the design philosophy used with GD&T
  • List the six major components in the GD&T language
  • Describe where GD&T should be used
  • List four benefits of GD&T
  • Explain how GD&T eliminates the shortcomings of coordinate tolerancing
  • Explain why the “great myth” of GD&T is untrue

Lesson 4: General Dimensioning Symbols
Goal: Understand the general dimensioning symbols

  • Interpret the symbols for radius, spherical radius, and controlled radius
  • Interpret the symbols for diameter and spherical diameter
  • Interpret the symbol for square
  • Interpret the symbols for counterbore and spotface
  • Interpret the symbol for depth
  • Interpret the symbol for countersink
  • Interpret the symbol for number of places
  • Interpret the symbol to indicate "by"
  • Interpret MAX and MIN dimensions 
  • Interpret the symbol for reference
  • Interpret the symbol for dimension origin
  • Interpret the model coordinate system symbol

Lesson 5: Key GD&T Terms
Goal: Understand the key terms used in the GD&T language.

  • Describe the terms "opposed," "partially opposed," and "non-opposed"
  • Describe the terms "size dimension" and "actual local size"
  • Explain why it is important to distinguish between a feature and a feature of size
  • Describe the terms "feature" and "complex feature" 
  • Describe the terms "feature of size," "regular feature of size," and "irregular feature of size"
  • Classify regular and irregular features of size and non-features of size on a drawing
  • Explain why it is important to distinguish between a regular and irregular feature of size
  • Describe the terms "actual mating envelope," "related actual mating envelope," and "unrelated actual mating envelope"
  • Describe the terms "maximum material condition," "least material condition," and "regardless of feature size"
  • Calculate the maximum and least material condition of a feature of size
  • Describe the term "pattern"
  • List seven ways to specify a pattern on a drawing

Lesson 6: Symbols and Modifiers
Goal: Recognize the symbols and modifiers used in GD&T

  • Identify the fourteen geometric characteristic symbols
  • List the five types of geometric controls
  • Identify the twenty-one geometric modifying symbols
  • Identify the parts of a feature control frame
  • Identify feature control frames on a drawing
  • Explain how the continuous feature modifier affects a feature and a feature of size
  • Define a basic dimension
  • List two uses for a basic dimension
  • Describe where the tolerance for a basic dimension comes from

Lesson 7: GD&T Rules
Goal: Understand the rules used in GD&T

  • Describe the difference between derived median line and axis
  • Recognize the 16 fundamental dimensioning rules used in GD&T
  • Explain the impact of each fundamental dimensioning rule on a drawing
  • Explain Rule #1
  • Draw the Rule #1 boundary
  • Determine where Rule #1 applies to a feature of size
  • Explain how Rule #1 affects the interrelationship between features of size
  • List two exceptions to Rule #1
  • List three ways Rule #1 can be overridden
  • Explain what a functional gage is
  • Explain how to inspect a feature of size that is controlled by Rule #1
  • Describe the independency concept
  • Explain Rule #2

Lesson 8: GD&T Concepts
Goal: Understand the concepts of worst-case boundary, virtual condition, and bonus tolerance.

  • Describe a worst-case boundary
  • Describe the term "inner boundary"
  • Describe the term "outer boundary"
  • Explain the concept of virtual condition
  • Identify the effect on the worst-case boundary where a geometric tolerance is applied to a feature or feature of size
  • Calculate the virtual condition of a feature of size with GD&T applied
  • Explain the concept of bonus tolerance
  • Calculate the maximum permissible bonus tolerance for a geometric tolerance

Lesson 9: Flatness Tolerance
Goal: Interpret the flatness tolerance.

  • Describe the terms "flatness," "derived median plane," and "flatness tolerance"
  • Describe the tolerances zones for a flatness tolerance
  • Describe Rule #1's effects on flatness deviation
  • Describe the modifiers that may be used in a flatness tolerance
  • Recognize when a flatness tolerance is applied to a planar surface or a feature of size
  • Describe real-world applications of a flatness tolerance
  • Interpret a flatness tolerance applied to a planar surface
  • Interpret a flatness tolerance at RFS applied to a feature of size dimension
  • Interpret a flatness tolerance at MMC applied to a feature of size dimension
  • Understand flatness verification principles
  • Describe how to verify a flatness tolerance applied to a planar surface
  • Describe how to verify a flatness tolerance (at MMC) applied to a feature of size

Lesson 10: Straightness Tolerance
Goal: Interpret the straightness tolerance

  • Describe the terms "straightness," "derived median line," and "straightness tolerance"
  • Describe the tolerance zones for a straightness tolerance
  • Describe Rule #1’s effects on straightness deviation
  • Describe the modifiers that may be used with a straightness tolerance
  • Determine if a straightness tolerance is applied to line elements or to a feature of size
  • Describe real-world applications for a straightness tolerance
  • Interpret the straightness tolerance applied to line elements of a cylindrical surface
  • Interpret a straightness tolerance at MMC applied to a feature of size dimension
  • Understand straightness verification principles
  • Describe how to verify a straightness tolerance applied to the elements of a cylindrical surface
  • Draw a functional gage for verifying a straightness at MMC application

Lesson 11: Circularity Tolerance
Goal: Interpret the circularity tolerance.

  • Describe the terms "circularity," "spine," "circularity tolerance," and "minimum radial separation"
  • Describe the tolerance zone for a circularity tolerance
  • Describe how Rule #1 affects circularity deviation
  • Describe the modifiers that may be used in a circularity
  • tolerance
  • Describe how to specify a circularity tolerance
  • Describe real-world applications for a circularity tolerance
  • Interpret a circularity tolerance applied to cylindrical surface
  • elements
  • Understand the verification principles for a circularity tolerance
  • Describe how to verify a circularity tolerance


Lesson 12: Cylindricity Tolerance
Goal: Interpret the cylindricity tolerance.

  • Describe the terms “cylindricity” and “cylindricity tolerance”
  • Describe the tolerance zone for a cylindricity tolerance
  • Describe Rule #1’s effects on cylindricity deviation
  • Describe how to specify a cylindricity tolerance
  • Describe the modifiers that may be used in a cylindricity tolerance
  • Describe real-world applications for a cylindricity tolerance
  • Interpret a cylindricity tolerance applied to a cylinder
  • Understand the verification principles for a cylindricity tolerance
  • Describe how to verify a cylindricity tolerance applied to the surface of a diameter.

Lesson 13: The Datum System
Goal: Understand the datum system.

  • Describe an implied datum
  • Describe the shortcomings and consequences of implied datums
  • Describe the datum system
  • Describe three benefits of the datum system
  • Define the terms “datum,” “datum feature,” “datum feature simulator,” and “simulated datum”
  • Recognize a datum feature symbol
  • Describe the datum reference frame symbol
  • Describe four ways to specify a planar datum feature
  • Explain how datum features are referenced in feature control frames
  • Describe the six degrees of freedom
  • Define “constraint”
  • Describe a datum reference frame
  • Describe what controls relationships between datum features
  • Describe the 3-2-1 Rule
  • Explain the basis for selecting datum features
  • Describe coplanar datum features
  • Explain why multiple datum reference frames are used
  • Explain the difference between datum-related and nondatum-related dimensions

Lesson 14: Datum Targets
Goal: Interpret Applications of Datum Targets.

  • Describe datum targets
  • Recognize the datum target symbols (datum target, movable datum target, datum target leader line, point, line, and area)
  • Explain where datum targets should be used
  • Describe how to establish a complete datum reference frame using datum targets
  • Describe a datum feature simulator for a point datum target application
  • Describe a datum feature simulator for a line datum target application
  • Describe a datum feature simulator for an area datum target application
  • Describe the datum feature simulator for datum targets applied to a non-planar surface
  • Interpret applications of datum targets applied to a partial surface, to offset parallel surfaces, on irregular surfaces, and using the movable datum target symbol

Lesson 15: Size Datum Features - RMB
Goal: Interpret size datum features (RMB).

  • Describe the terms, “regardless of material boundary,” “datum axis,” “datum center plane,” “datum center point,” “coaxial diameters,” and “coaxial datum features”
  • Describe common methods used to specify a feature of size as a datum feature
  • Describe how to reference a feature of size datum feature at RMB
  • Describe two effects of referencing a feature of size datum feature at regardless of material boundary (RMB)
  • Describe the datum feature simulator and list the DOF constrained for external and internal cylindrical feature of size datum features (RMB primary)
  • Describe the datum feature simulator and list the DOF constrained for external and internal planar feature of size datum features (RMB primary)
  • Describe the datum feature simulator and list the DOF constrained for a planar surface primary and internal feature of size (RMB secondary)
  • Describe the datum feature simulator and list the DOF constrained for a planar surface primary and internal feature of size (RMB secondary and tertiary)
  • Describe the datum established from coaxial datum features of size referenced at RMB
  • Describe the datum feature simulator for coaxial datum features of size referenced at RMB

Lesson 16: Size Datum Features - MMB
Goal: Interpret size datum features (MMB).

  • Describe the term “maximum material boundary” (MMB)
  • Describe two effects of referencing a datum feature at MMB
  • Calculate the size of the datum feature simulator for a primary datum feature MMB
  • Calculate the size of the datum feature simulator for secondary datum feature MMB
  • Calculate the size of the datum feature simulator for tertiary datum feature MMB
  • Describe the concept of datum feature shift
  • Explain where datum feature shift is permissible
  • Calculate the amount of datum feature shift permissible
  • Determine when datum feature shift is or is not additive to a geometric tolerance
  • Calculate the MMB of the datum feature simulator for a planar surface datum feature at MMB
  • Describe the datum feature simulator and the DOF constrained for internal and external cylindrical feature of size datum features (MMB primary)
  • Describe the datum feature simulator and the DOF constrained for internal and external width feature of size datum features (MMB primary)
  • Describe the datum feature simulator for an internal feature of size (MMB secondary)
  • Describe the datum feature simulator for an internal feature of size (MMB tertiary)
  • Describe the datum feature simulator and the DOF constrained for coaxial datum features (MMB)
  • Describe the datum feature simulator and the DOF constrained for a pattern of features of size (MMB)
  • Analyze the effects that changing the datum reference sequence in a feature control frame has on the part and datum feature simulator

Lesson 17: Perpendicularity Tolerance
Goal: Interpret the perpendicularity tolerance.

  • Describe what controls the tolerance on implied 90° angles
  • Describe the terms “perpendicularity” and “perpendicularity tolerance”
  • Describe two common tolerance zone shapes for a perpendicularity tolerance
  • List three indirect perpendicularity tolerances
  • Describe the modifiers that may be used in a perpendicularity tolerance
  • Recognize when a perpendicularity tolerance is applied to a planar surface or a feature of size
  • Interpret a perpendicularity tolerance with multiple datum references applied to a planar surface
  • Describe real-world applications for a perpendicularity tolerance
  • Interpret a perpendicularity tolerance applied to a planar surface
  • Interpret a perpendicularity application that uses the tangent plane modifier
  • Interpret a perpendicularity tolerance at RFS applied to a width
  • Interpret a perpendicularity tolerance at MMC applied to a width
  • Interpret a perpendicularity tolerance at MMC applied to a cylindrical feature of size
  • Understand perpendicularity verification principles
  • Describe how a perpendicularity tolerance applied to a surface is verified
  • Draw a gage for inspecting perpendicularity applied to a feature of size (MMC)

Lesson 18: Parallelism Tolerance
Goal: Interpret the parallelism tolerance.

  • Describe what controls the parallelism deviation between two parallel surfaces where no parallelism tolerance is specified
  • Describe the terms “parallelism” and “parallelism tolerance”
  • Describe two common tolerance zone shapes for a parallelism tolerance
  • Recognize when a parallelism tolerance is applied to a planar surface or to a feature of size
  • List two indirect parallelism tolerances
  • Describe the modifiers that may be used in a parallelism tolerance
  • Describe real-world applications for a parallelism tolerance
  • Interpret a parallelism tolerance applied to a planar surface
  • Interpret a parallelism application that uses the tangent plane modifier
  • Interpret a parallelism tolerance at RFS applied to a diameter
  • Interpret a parallelism tolerance at MMC applied to a diameter
  • Understand parallelism verification principles
  • Describe how a parallelism tolerance applied to a surface is verified
  • Describe how to verify a parallelism tolerance at RFS applied to a feature of size
  • Describe how to verify a parallelism tolerance at MMC applied to a feature of size

Lesson 19: Angularity Tolerance
Goal: Interpret the angularity tolerance.

  • Describe the terms "angularity" and "angularity tolerance"
  • Describe two common tolerance zone shapes for an angularity tolerance
  • Recognize when an angularity tolerance is applied to a surface or to a feature of size
  • List two indirect angularity tolerances
  • Describe the alternative practice for using an angularity tolerance to control orientation
  • List which modifiers should be used in an angularity tolerance
  • Describe real-world applications for an angularity tolerance
  • Interpret an angularity tolerance applied to a planar surface
  • Explain the effect of using multiple datum references with an angularity tolerance
  • Interpret an angularity application that uses the tangent plane modifier
  • Interpret an angularity tolerance at RFS applied to a diameter
  • Interpret an angularity tolerance at MMC applied to a diameter
  • Understand verification principles for angularity
  • Describe how an angularity tolerance applied to a surface is verified
  • Describe a functional gage for verifying an angularity tolerance at MMC


Lesson 20: Position Tolerance - Introduction
Goal: Interpret the position tolerance.

  • Describe the terms “true position” and “position tolerance”
  • Describe the geometry attributes that a position tolerance can affect
  • Describe two common tolerance zone shapes for a position tolerance
  • List the requirements of a position tolerance
  • Describe the modifiers that can be used with a position tolerance
  • Explain when each material condition modifier (MMC, LMC, or RFS) should be used in a position tolerance
  • Explain the surface interpretation for a position tolerance
  • Explain the axis/center plane interpretation for a position tolerance
  • List six advantages of using a position tolerance
  • Describe four types of feature of size relationships commonly toleranced with a position tolerance


Lesson 21: Position Tolerance - RFS and MMC
Goal: Interpret position tolerance applications RFS and MMC.

  • List five conditions that apply where a position tolerance is
  • indicated at RFS
  • List five conditions that apply where a position tolerance is indicated at MMC
  • Describe real-world applications for position tolerances
  • Interpret a position tolerance at RFS applied to a hole
  • Interpret a position tolerance at RFS applied to a slot
  • Interpret a position tolerance at RFS applied to coaxial diameters
  • Interpret a position tolerance at RFS applied to a pattern of holes
  • Interpret a position tolerance at MMC applied to a hole
  • Interpret a position tolerance at MMC applied to coaxial diameters
  • Interpret a position tolerance at MMC applied to a pattern of holes
  • Understand the verification principles for position tolerances
  • Describe how to inspect a position tolerance (RFS)
  • Describe how to inspect a position tolerance (MMC)


Lesson 22: Position Tolerance - Special Applications
Goal: Interpret special applications of position tolerances.

  • Describe the term "projected tolerance zone"
  • Describe a real-world application of the projected tolerance zone modifier
  • Interpret a position tolerance using the projected tolerance zone modifier
  • Describe how a position tolerance with the projected tolerance zone modifier can be verified
  • Describe what a multiple single-segment position tolerance is
  • Describe a real-world application of a multiple single-segment position tolerance
  • Interpret a multiple single-segment position tolerance
  • Describe what a composite position tolerance is
  • Describe a real-world application of a composite position tolerance
  • Interpret a composite position tolerance
  • Interpret a position tolerance applied to a hole (MMC) at an angle to the datums
  • Interpret a position tolerance used as a bidirectional tolerance
  • Interpret a position tolerance applied to an elongated hole
  • Interpret a position tolerance used to tolerance a symmetrical relationship
  • Interpret a position tolerance using the LMC modifier
  • Interpret a position tolerance used to tolerance the spacing and orientation of a hole pattern
  • Explain what zero tolerance at MMC tolerancing is
  • List three benefits of zero tolerance at MMC dimensioning
  • Describe a real-world application for using zero tolerance at MMC
  • Interpret a zero tolerance at MMC position application

Lesson 23: Position Tolerance Calculations
Goal: Calculate position tolerance values using the fixed and floating fastener formulas.

  • Describe a fixed-fastener assembly
  • State the general fixed fastener formula for calculating position tolerance values (with equal distribution)
  • Calculate the position tolerance values for a fixed fastener application using the general fixed fastener formula
  • State the modified fixed fastener formula for calculating position tolerance values (with unequal distribution)
  • Calculate the position tolerance values for a fixed fastener application using the modified fixed fastener formula
  • Describe a floating fastener assembly
  • State the formula for calculating position tolerance values for floating fastener assemblies
  • Calculate the position tolerance values for floating fastener applications
  • Describe the limitations of the fixed and floating fastener formulas

Lesson 24: Circular Runout Tolerances
Goal: Understand how to interpret the circular runout tolerance.

  • Describe what runout is
  • List two types of runout tolerances
  • List three ways a datum axis can be specified for a runout tolerance
  • Explain what circular runout is
  • Describe the tolerance zone for a circular runout tolerance (applied to a diameter)
  • Describe how circular runout can be inspected
  • Describe how circular runout is a composite tolerance
  • Determine the maximum amount of axis offset from a circular runout tolerance
  • Interpret a circular runout application
  • Describe two common applications for circular runout

Lesson 25: Total Runout Tolerances
Goal: Understand how to interpret the total runout tolerance.

  • Describe what total runout is
  • List two requirements of a total runout tolerance
  • Describe the tolerance zone for a total runout tolerance (applied to a diameter)
  • Describe how total runout is verified
  • Describe how total runout is a composite control
  • Determine the maximum amount of axis offset from a total runout control
  • Describe two similarities between circular and total runout
  • Describe two differences between circular and total runout
  • Describe two common applications for total runout

Lesson 26: Concentricity Tolerance
Goal: Interpret the concentricity tolerance.

  • Describe a median point
  • Describe the term "concentricity"
  • Describe the tolerance zone for a concentricity tolerance
  • List three requirements of a concentricity tolerance
  • Interpret a concentricity tolerance application
  • Describe one difference between concentricity and tolerance of position (RFS)
  • Describe one common application for concentricity
  • Describe how a concentricity tolerance can be inspected

Lesson 27: Symmetry Tolerance
Goal: Interpret the symmetry tolerance.

  • Describe the term "symmetry"
  • Describe the tolerance zone for a symmetry tolerance
  • List four requirements of a symmetry control
  • Interpret a symmetry control application
  • Describe one difference between symmetry and tolerance of position (RFS)
  • Describe one common application for symmetry
  • Describe how a symmetry control can be inspected

Lesson 28: Profile Tolerance - Introduction
Goal: Understand the basic concepts of the profile tolerances.

  • Describe the terms "profile," "true profile," "profile of a surface tolerance," and "profile of a line tolerance"
  • Describe the tolerance zone shape for profile of a surface and profile of a line tolerances
  • Describe the geometry attributes that a profile tolerance can affect
  • Explain the effect of using profile with or without datum references
  • List the modifiers used with profile tolerances
  • Describe bilateral, unilateral, and non-uniform tolerance zones
  • Describe the effect of the unequally disposed profile symbol
  • Describe the default condition for the extent a profile control tolerance zone applies to a part
  • Describe the effect of the "between" symbol
  • Describe the effect of the "all around" symbol
  • Describe the effects of the "all over" symbol
  • List three advantages of using profile tolerances

Lesson 29: Profile Tolerance Applications
Goal: Interpret profile tolerance applications.

  • Describe real-world applications for a profile of a surface tolerance
  • Interpret a profile of a surface tolerance applied to a planar surface
  • Describe how to inspect a profile of a surface tolerance that is used to locate a planar surface
  • Interpret profile of a surface applied to a closed polygon
  • Interpret profile of a surface applied to a conical surface
  • Interpret a profile tolerance applied to coplanar surfaces
  • Describe what a multiple single-segment profile tolerance is
  • Interpret a multiple single-segment profile control
  • Describe what a composite profile tolerance is
  • Interpret a composite profile tolerance
  • Describe real-world applications for a profile of a line tolerance
  • Interpret a profile of a line tolerance used with a dimension origin dimension to locate the surface
  • Interpret a profile of a line tolerance application used to control orientation and form
  • Understand the verification principles for profile tolerances
  • Describe how to inspect a profile of a surface tolerance that is used to locate a planar surface


 



Home | News | Solutions | Alex Krulikowski | History | Testimonials | ETImail | Why Choose ETI?
Products | Blog | Downloads | On-Site Training | Public Seminars | Live Web Training | Engineering Services
Tech Papers | Online Training | Tip of the Month | GD&T Certification | What is GD&T? | GD&T Glossary
HTML Catalog | Catalog | ISO GD&T Glossary | GD&T Savings Calculator | Links | Maps | Media Page | Contact ETI
Reprint Policy

Copyright © 1997 - 2017 Effective Training Inc. an SAE INTERNATIONAL Company All rights reserved.
This file last modified 03/27/13