Effective Training Inc., Westland  MI,  1.800.886.0909  
Volume 02: Issue 7



Known as the "Doctor of Dimensioning," Alex Krulikowski is a noted educator, author, and expert on Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T). He has more than 30 years of industrial experience putting GD&T to practical use on the shop floor. 

Alex has taught GD&T to tens of thousands through his workshops and seminars, and to countless others through his books, self-study courses, videos, and computer-based training programs.


25th Anniversary GD&T Savings Event

ETI’s largest company-wide sale in our 25-year history offers deep discounts on products and services. Don't miss this spectacular event! Ends September 30, 2010.

Read more about it.


Web Highlights

machine design

Avoiding Design Problems With Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) has been around since the 1940s, yet it is unappreciated as a way of finding bad designs before parts get made...

A good PDP reduces the time it takes to deliver a quality product to market. So it is useful to review the role GD&T plays within a PDP.

This March 2009 article in Machine Design magazine was co-authored by Alex Krulikowski and Jim Roll, PhD.

To read the article, click here.

Article edited by Leland Teschler

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ETI Services

ETI is dedicated to client success by providing world-class dimensional engineering solutions

ETI provides a variety of engineering services that will help your organization improve product design and save money. We can review your drawings and evaluate them before production, helping you to reduce costs through proper specification. We can also help you apply GD&T to your existing drawings.

Design Services
ETI offers economical design services. Send us your drawings and we will perform:

  • Design checking
  • GD&T markups
  • Tolerance stack analysis

Consulting Services
ETI's consulting services can be performed in-house or at your site.

  • Design reviews
  • Drawing audits for standards compliance
  • Expert interpretation of drawings for customers or suppliers
  • Product drawings reviewed for meaningfulness, reasonable tolerances, and critical tolerance stacks
  • Mentoring of employees on the correct usage of GD&T
  • Measurement plans reviewed

We can also implement meetings to discuss. . .

  • GD&T usage or standards
  • Application of GD&T to a product
  • Inspection of GD&T requirements
  • Converting functional requirements into GD&T specifications

To read more about our services, click here.

Click here to request a quote.

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ETI Workshops

ETI offers convenient, customized, onsite workshops in a variety of GD&T-related topics.

alex teaching

ETI Offers On-Site Training 
Effective Training brings hands-on GD&T instruction right to your location. Workshops can be customized to include your drawings and parts

Click on any course to learn more about it.

Applications of GD&T

ASME Y14.5M-1994 to 2009 Update

ASME-ISO Comparison

Engineering Drawing Requirements

Executive Overview of GD&T

Functional Gaging and Measurement

GD&T Advanced Concepts

GD&T Fundamentals

GD&T Fundamentals for Inspectors

GD&T Overview Workshop

ISO Geometrical Tolerancing

Solid Model Tolerancing

Statistical Tolerance Stacks

System Approach to Component Tolerancing

Tolerance Stacks

To learn more about what ETI has to offer your organization, click here. To request a training quote, click here.

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ETI Products

Monthly Web Special

ETI offers a special deal on a different product each month. Check out this month's Web Special.

The GD&T Trainer Professional Edition—a virtual classroom at your desktop


GD&T Training Made Easy
The GD&T Trainer Professional Edition (Y14.5M-1994) contains 28 student-focused lessons covering the fundamentals of GD&T. Instant lesson feedback and quizzes reinforce the material.

Highlights include a GD&T glossary, tolerancing application and inspection examples, audio narration, full-color technical animations, 3-D solid part examples, and a certification exam.

To read more about it, click here
To download a demo, click here

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GD&T advanced concepts taught by the experts. . .

advanced concepts

Advanced Concepts of GD&T Textbook
The textbook stresses the application of GD&T in industry and takes an in-depth look at many GD&T topics. Position, profile, and datums are covered in detail. Covers common industry tolerancing practices not documented in ASME Y14.5M-1994. It's an indispensable on-the-job reference.

To read more about it, click here

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Knowledge of stacks separates the exceptional engineers from
the rest


Learn Tolerance Stacks With On-The-Job Focus
Our stacks textbook stresses applications found in actual industrial situations. Solve tolerance stack problems involving flatness, straightness, tolerance of position, runout, concentricity, and more. Practice stacks are from actual drawings and provided in the Drawing Package.

To read more about it, click here

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Teaching GD&T has never been easier: digital kits have course materials on CD-ROM

Digital Instructors' Kits from ETI
ETI now offers all of our instructor's materials in a convenient digital format. Each kit includes everything needed to teach an entire course on one handy CD-ROM.

To read more about them, click

To download a demo, click here

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The "ultimate" GD&T reference tool is only available from ETI

pocket guide

Economical Tool You Can't Afford To Miss
Carry this pocket-sized reference with you on the job and have a resource to all your GD&T questions at your fingertips. Order one for each member of your team!

To read more about it, click here

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ETI Resources


How Well do You Know GD&T? Try the Free GD&T Skills Survey Today
Do you know the geometric symbols, each symbol’s requirements, tolerance zones, and limitations?

Click here to take the GD&T Skills Survey.

Do You Understand Tolerance Stacks? Try the Free Stacks Skills Survey Today
The Stacks Skills Survey measures how well an individual can use tolerance stacks to determine part distances or assembly conditions, like clearances, or part travel.

Click here to take the stacks Skills Survey.

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Quality Quote


Our work is the presentation of our capabilities. 

–Edward Gibbon

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ETI Staff

Alex Krulikowski

Financial Administrator
Pat Krulikowski

Product Developers
Jamy Krulikowski
Mark Ramsey

Customer Service Coordinator
Jim McBreen

Account Executive
Dennis Moore

Website Administrator
Brandon Billings

Graphic Designer
Matthew Pride

Network Administrator/

Chris Wioskowski

Katherine Palmer

Shipping Manager
Gary Walls

Mechanical Designer
Ken Blinn

Dimensional Engineering Mentors
Michael Adcock
Roy Cross

Bob Bourland
Dan Carlson
Robert Charlton
Brent Davis
Charles (Don) Holder
Dale MacPherson
Daniel Meyers
Christopher Nolan
Dave Slopsema
Carl Wargula



Visit our blog

ETI’s blog is dedicated to GD&T and contains tolerancing insights from Alex, training tips, product announcements, and more.

Read the ETI blog.


ETImail is a regular online publication devoted to geometric dimensioning & tolerancing. Each edition features a host of GD&T resources and links, as well as dimensioning tips by noted GD&T author and ETI founder, Alex Krulikowski.

We also invite you to visit our website,
. To view past issues of ETImail, see the archives. ETImail is now available in PDF format. To read the file, you will need Adobe Acrobat Reader.

In This Issue
Here are this issue's highlights. Click on any link to jump directly to a feature:

Featured Article: Six Strategies to Inspire Performance Improvement From Training
Alex's Tech Tip: ISO geometrical tolerancing
ETI News: Three new courses: Functional Gaging and Measurement, GD&T for Inspectors, and Applications of GD&T
ETI Mailbag: Question about using a general note with one tolerance for a whole part
ASME Y14.5-2009: Two new classes and two new products that conform to the new ASME standard

In the sidebar:
Web Highlights: Avoiding Design Problems With Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
ETI Services: Engineering Services: Consulting Services and Drawing Review/Checking Services
ETI Training: Onsite Workshops

ETI Products: Web Special, GD&T Trainer Professional Edition, Advanced Concepts, Stacks
ETI Resources: GD&T and Tolerance Stacks Skills Surveys
Other Features: Quality Quote of the month


Six Strategies to Inspire Performance Improvement From Training

Alex Krulikowski

Good training will provide your employees with skills they can use to improve performance on the job, but whether or not the improvements occur is dependent upon the job environment.

ETI is celebrating its 25th year providing geometric dimensioning and tolerancing products and services. It seems like yesterday that I began teaching GD&T skills to small companies in the Detroit area. Since 1985, Effective Training and the use of GD&T have both come a long way.

In 1985, computer-based training, distance learning, hand-held digital devices, ebooks, and other common tools of our modern digital age were only ideas working their way into the technical training world. Now, I can't imagine creating and teaching courses without them.

25th anniversaryI'm happy to say that in the past 25 years, using GD&T has become a vital part of the manufacturing world. Successful companies and corporations worldwide have implemented geometric tolerancing on their drawings, and using GD&T has provided a common language that streamlines global manufacturing processes. Our company has traversed the globe teaching GD&T courses to our many valuable clients. (See where we've trained and some of our clients.)

Since 1985, our company has successfully trained literally thousands of students through our workshops and computer-based training. I've become aware of the best (and worst!) practices used when implementing GD&T. I thought I'd use this issue of ETImail to discuss solutions to a common complaint that I've heard many times throughout the past 25 years from managers in the U.S. and overseas: employees successfully complete training, yet don't successfully implement their newly found skills.

I'd also like to thank all of our training partners throughout the world. We couldn't have had a successful 25 years without you.

Ancora Imparo,

alex krulikowski

Six Strategies to Inspire Performance Improvements From Training

Do any of these statements sound familiar?

“The training didn't work.”

“The training was a waste of time; our workers still don't make good drawings.”

“We had GD&T training before, but nothing has changed.”

“Good training should result in performance improvement.”

“What’s wrong with these guys? We trained them and they still make mistakes.”

“We learned about GD&T, but we still like to use the old methods because our plants and suppliers won’t understand.”

“We had GD&T training, but we don’t have time to apply the symbols so we use the old methods.”

If you're a manager who's heard any of these comments, this article will be of interest to you. It provides you with six strategies for inspiring on-the-job performance from training.

Good training will provide your employees with skills they can use to improve performance on the job, but whether or not the improvements occur is dependent upon the job environment. For example, if an employee is criticized, or told to “do it the old way,” the employee will soon abandon what was learned in the training and do what makes his or her life a little brighter at work.

The six performance improvement strategies work toward achieving four goals. They will help you to:

  1. Demonstrate the importance of the skills being learned in the training
  2. Establish expectations for performance improvement from the training
  3. Maintain the skills obtained from the training
  4. Create a supportive environment for the training

Implementing these strategies only takes about two hours a month. This small investment maximizes the ROI of the training event, results in improved performance on the job, and contributes to achieving business objectives.

The strategies fall into three categories: before the training is purchased, before the training occurs, and after the training is completed.

Before the training is purchased...

Strategy 1: Understand the relationship between the course goals and the company business objectives.
The training should support the business objectives of your organization. Check to see that the course goals and objectives relate to your business objectives.

vision graphic
Click on the chart for a larger view or download a pdf version

Strategy 2: Understand how the course goals and objectives relate to employee job duties that support your business objectives.
This information will help you to communicate to the employee why the training is important, how it relates to the job, and where you expect to see improved performance as a result of the training. If you need recommendations about the course content and what skills students will be able to perform after the course, contact the training provider.

Strategy 3: Plan and budget for follow-up activities and additional support for developing the new skills.
Recognize from the start that skills need to be supported or the transfer to the job will be minimal. This involves creating a supportive environment, supplying job aids, offering on-the-job coaching opportunities, and giving proper feedback.

Click on the chart for a larger view or download a pdf version

Approximately one week before the training occurs...

Strategy 4: Conduct a one-hour meeting with employees from your department to discuss the importance of the training and how it relates to their jobs.
  1. Start by finding out why each employee feels the training will help in his or her job. What will they specifically learn that will help them in their job?
  2. Discuss the importance of the training they are about to attend. Explain what problems or benefits are expected as a result of the training. Be realistic with your expectations. If you need recommendations about the course content and what the students will be able to do, contact the training provider.
  3. Describe the type of course and verify that the employees agree they need this training. Some individuals may state that they “know GD&T” or they have “used GD&T before.” Don’t assume they have a proper understanding. Have them take a pre-test if they want to skip the training.
  4. Pass out a copy of the course agenda, and ask each employee to identify which areas will help the most.
  5. Pass out the course textbook, and ask the employees to look it over in preparation for the class.
  6. Discuss specific GD&T problems or questions from their jobs that they should ask about in class. If you are aware of any examples, ask the group to find out the answers.
  7. Pass out the personal training guide and have each employee fill in the appropriate sections. Explain that after the class is over, the completed personal training guides will become an input for their performance review.
  8. Remind them that you will have a follow up meeting after the training to discuss how to apply the skills to their jobs.

After the training has been completed...

Strategy 5: (Within one week after the training) Conduct a one-hour meeting with employees to discuss how they will use the training, your expectations, and what they need from you to support the training.

  1. Ask the group what they learned from the training. Review the seminar evaluation results with the employees.
  2. Ask how they will change what they do on their jobs as a result of the training.
  3. Ask each employee how they intend to use the GD&T information on their jobs.
  4. Ask your employees how you can support the use and growth of the new skills. Make a list and obtain the items needed by your employees. Some common tools to enhance performance are documentation, organizational structure, processes, standards, job aids and on-line reference databases.
  5. Request that all employees take the skills survey (or another internal test) to measure their skill levels.
  6. Collect the personal training guides and review with each employee what performance goals are going to be added to his/her performance evaluation.
  7. Ensure that you consistently create an environment where the workers' world gets a little brighter when they use GD&T correctly and a little dimmer when they don’t.

Strategy 6: (At approximately 3, 6, & 12 months after the training) Conduct one-hour meetings with the employees to discuss how they are using GD&T in their jobs. Provide feedback.

  1. Prior to each meeting, collect work examples and consult an expert source to determine their level of correctness. If the results are poor, supply assistance (i.e. GD&T applications mentoring).
  2. Discuss the work examples of GD&T applications in the meeting.
  3. Ask the employees how you can support the use and growth of the new GD&T skills.
  4. Ask the employees if they have any specific problems or roadblocks related to GD&T.
  5. Ensure that you consistently create an environment where the workers' world gets a little brighter when they use GD&T correctly and a little dimmer when they don’t.

These six strategies can be applied to any training that you would like to convert into performance improvement.


Click on the chart for a larger view or download a pdf version

A closing thought…
If you have an employee who uses GD&T, you need to understand the topic to be able to effectively evaluate his/her performance. A great way to show your support and gain the knowledge needed for a proper evaluation is to attend the training.

This article may be reprinted free for use by your organization if our Reprint Policy is followed.

We welcome your feedback. Send comments about this article to ETImail. Your opinions will be posted in the next issue.

This article may be reprinted free for use by your organization if our Reprint Policy is followed.

Alex's Tech Tip

Alex Krulikowski’s ISO reference guide is written with the influence of nearly 70 ISO geometrical product specification (GPS) standards. More than 20 ISO GPS standards are directly covered in the text with dozens more cited throughout the book.

iso guide
Alex Krulikowski's ISO Geometrical Tolerancing Guide

ISO Geometrical Tolerancing
Look inside the book
For 25 years, ETI has been synonymous with the ASME Y14.5 Standard on Dimensioning and Tolerancing. For the next quarter century, the company will focus on more GD&T-related products, more general design and inspection courses, and - for the first time - we are offering an ISO geometrical tolerancing product. If you use ISO standards, Alex Krulikowski's ISO Geometrical Tolerancing Reference Guide is a valuable product you won't want to be without.

iso-gdtAlex Krulikowski's ISO Geometrical Tolerancing Reference Guide simplifies using ISO standards by collecting volumes of information into one book with clearly marked topics. Cross-referenced concepts, a glossary, a topical index, and hundreds of easy-to-understand tables and figures complete the explanation of ISO practices. This thorough guidebook explains basic ISO dimensioning concepts and conventions, geometrical tolerances, surface texture and imperfections, and even includes a symbol-by-symbol comparison of ASME Y14.5 and ISO specifications.

Alex and two other dimensional engineering experts spent over a year completing the research, comparison, and analysis of the ISO geometrical product specification (GPS) system. This collective effort, combined with Alex’s insights from his contributions to the ISO TC213 Committee, increased the ability to sort through seemingly conflicting or vague ISO requirements. In industry, this reference guide can save companies hundreds of hours searching for tolerancing information spread over dozens of ISO standards.

Alex Krulikowski’s ISO reference guide is written with the influence of nearly 70 ISO geometrical product specification (GPS) standards. More than 20 ISO GPS standards are directly covered in the text with dozens more cited throughout the book. This reference guide provides the user with a comprehensive understanding of the ISO GPS system as well as preparing the reader to better understand the text of the ISO standards themselves. Read more about it...

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ETI News

ETI continues to add new GD&T products and services in order to provide you with more GD&T training options. Keep an eye on this section to read about our latest news. This issue: announcing three new courses.

Functional Gaging and Measurement 2-Day Workshop
Based on Y14.5, Y14.5.1, Y14.43, and various B89 Standards

gaging course

The latest course from ETI includes an introduction to functional gaging design and how to verify part dimensional requirements using functional gages and other measurement methods. The course is based on ASME Y14.5, Y14.5.1, Y14.43, and various B89 standards.

Course topics include:

  • Introduction to metrology, the roles of the metrologist and inspector
  • Importance of the inspection function
  • Measurement uncertainty overview
  • Basic operating principles, strengths, weaknesses of the three major categories of inspection tools (attribute or functional gages / variable measurement devices / algorithm based measurement devices)
  • Functional gaging types, design principles, and tolerances
  • Considerations affecting part verification
  • Inspection planning and reporting
  • Inspecting size dimensions
  • Simulating datums
  • Inspecting GD&T requirements using  tools from the three major categories of inspection tools

The workshop focuses on inspection techniques for first article or fitness for use verification, including:

  • How to make a working sketch of  a functional gage
  • Identifying the appropriate tools for verifying each geometric control
  • Improving quality and efficiency through a proper verification of engineering requirements
  • CMM measurement strategies

This course is a valuable tool for individuals who inspect parts, create inspection plans, or approve inspection methods. Typical attendees include CMM operators, inspectors, gage designers, manufacturing engineers, technicians, supplier quality engineers. Read more about the course. Read more about the course.

request a quote

Other new courses from ETI:

Fundamentals of GD&T for Inspectors Workshop
For CMM operators, inspectors, gage designers, manufacturing engineers, technicians, supplier quality engineers

This 2 1/2-day workshop includes an introduction to geometric dimensioning and tolerancing and how to inspect GD&T requirements. The course is based on ASME Y14.5, Y14.5.1 and Y14.43 sta
ndards. The course explains:

  • The geometric symbols, rules, and concepts
  • The datum system
  • Requirements of the geometric symbols and the datum system
  • Each geometric symbol’s tolerance zone shape, size, orientation, and location
  • How to inspect GD&T requirements using  tools from the four categories of inspection tools (CMM; comparison instruments and fixed gages; hand tools and open set up; and production gaging systems) Read more about the course.

request a quote

Applications of GD&T Workshop
For product engineers, designers, checkers, engineering managers, and supplier quality engineers

This 2-day workshop teaches the thought processes involved in assigning GD&T to components. It will change the way many engineers think about part tolerancing.

The workshop focuses on four key areas:

  • Understanding what constitutes good and poor drawing practices
  • Understanding the common dimensioning methods used in industry
  • Using geometric tolerancing to communicate system functions on component dimensions
  • Understanding the logic of how to apply GD&T to components
Students will actually perform a design function analysis on a part assembly provided by your company, then specify GD&T on assembly components during the workshop.

Customer supplies an assembly drawing and a set of corresponding detail drawings (and physical parts, if possible) to ETI four weeks prior to the workshop. Read more about the course.

request a quote

To learn more about our workshops, call 1-800-886-0909 or click here for more information.

eti logo

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The ETI Mailbag

I work in a large company that makes products that use plastic injection molded parts. The molds are made directly from the solid model. I would like to use a general note with one tolerance for the whole part. This would save me many hours in drawing creation time which translates into thousands of dollars that could be saved at my company annually. Do you agree?

John P., Dallas, TX

Dear John,
You are correct. Using a note with one general tolerance for the whole part would save you time, and time is money.  However, this solution is optimizing your job at the expense of the entire organization. This approach will likely only save time and money for you. Others in the organization or supply chain will bear the consequences of this local optimization. In the end, this often costs more money than you saved.
While general tolerances are a widely used practice, and geometric tolerances have been used as general tolerances (usually position or profile of a surface), general tolerances should not be used as the primary means of defining allowable part variation.

Because a part is made from an injected molded process, and the mold is machined form the solid model, it does not mean that the part will be perfect. Each surface on the part will have variation. The variation will result from:

  • Tolerances in the machining of the mold
  • Shrink allowance for the mold
  • Alignment of the mold segments
  • Location of cooling lines in the mold
  • Part shrinkage, deflection, and configuration
  • Draft, flash, and mismatch

If the same tolerance applies to all surfaces of a part, some surfaces may have a tolerance that is tighter than needed for function, and some surfaces may have tolerance that is looser than needed for the part function.

If a tolerance is too tight for a part surface that has a less-important (i.e. no significant failure mode) function:

  • Perfectly functional (sellable) parts may go to scrap
  • Molds may require extensive maintenance
  • Molds will have a shorter than necessary service life before major rework or replacement
  • Manufacturing may incur extra costs try to meet a Cp and Cpk for a tight tolerance

If a tolerance is too loose, part function and customer satisfaction will be diminished.

A common use of general tolerances is to tolerance the less-important functional surfaces of a part. If surface of a part has a less-important function, then a locally applied tolerance may not be needed. A general tolerance could provide the allowable variation for toolmakers, the production source, and inspectors to work with.

Just because a general tolerance is listed on the drawing, it does not mean the designer must apply the general tolerance to a number of part features. Many drawings exist where the designer defines every feature of the part with local tolerances, leaving the general tolerances completely unused.

Remember, if a tolerance is too loose or too tight, the organization will encounter unnecessary costs.

ETI appreciates your questions and comments.
Send your GD&T questions to: ETImail.

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ASME Y14.5-2009 Standard Products

Are you ready to implement the 2009 standard? Have you already begun to use it, yet you have some problems understanding the changes? ETI can help your company make the change to the new standard. We offer a variety of products and services that will help you train employees, and provide reference materials to use on the job.

The One-Day ASME Y14.5-2009 Update Workshop
ETI will bring the training directly to your site, and teach you about the pertinent changes made to the Y14.5 standard. You'll learn how the subject matter has been reorganized, and about new sections that have been created for profile, orientation, and form.

The workshop covers these major changes to the standard:

  • Over thirty new or revised terms
  • Sixteen new or revised symbols
  • Revisions and additions to the fundamental rules
  • Revisions and additions to the concept of feature of size
  • Revisions and new symbols for datum specifications
  • Revisions to composite position tolerances
  • Surface boundaries and axis methods of interpretation
  • Revisions and new additions to profile tolerance

Read more about it....

request a quote


ASME Y14.5 Standard Comparison: 1994 to 2009 Web-Based Training
The new ASME standard contains numerous changes that affect the specification and interpretation of geometric tolerancing. This course covers over sixty significant revisions, additions, and deletions to the new standard. You'll learn how the subject matter has been reorganized, and about new sections that have been created for profile, orientation, and form. Read more about it....

request a quote

ASME Y14.5M-1994 to ASME Y14.5-2009 New Features Comparison Chart Set
chartsCompare the features of ASME Y14.5M-1994 and ASME Y14.5-2009 quickly and easily with the New Features Comparison Chart Set. This set of two, 2-sided charts illustrates the itemized changes in the standard for quick, on-the-job drawing interpretation. An ideal tool for the working designer, engineer or design manager, this pair of fully illustrated, 11" x 17" charts fits in a 3-ring binder. 

  • Provides itemized changes in the standard for quick, on-the-job drawing interpretation
  • Compares features of ASME Y14.5M-1994 and ASME Y14.5-2009
  • Includes references to the ASME Y14.5-2009 Standard so you can quickly find additional information
The new features comparison chart set makes an excellent teaching aid or on-the-job reference. Read more about it.


Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide: ASME Y14.5-2009
pocket guide
Look inside the book

The Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide is the perfect on-the-job pocket reference for your geometric dimensioning and tolerancing needs. The new ASME Y14.5-2009 pocket guide includes all the topics from the 1994 version with updates to the 2009 ASME Standard and 50% more content. Click on the graphic for a larger view.

Spiral-bound, more content, includes index tabs for on-the-job functionality
The 2009 GD&T pocket guide is now spiral bound so it lays flat. It also has several new organizational features, like index tabs, a topical index, and a glossary. We've added references to clauses within the standard and cross-references to other pages within the pocket guide that contain application examples or other related information. Read more about it.



ETI is developing new products all the time. Be sure to check the ETI website often for more new ASME 2009 products and services.

ETImail Feedback

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What products or training would you like to see added to our line-up? Take a short 5-question survey to let us know what you think.

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