Alex Krulikowski is
a noted educator, author, and expert on Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
(GD&T). He has a degree in industrial vocational education and more
than 30 years of industrial experience putting GD&T to practical use
on the shop floor.
Alex is the prolific
author of several books on GD&T. He has taught GD&T to tens of
thousands through workshops, books, videos, and computer-based training.
ASME Standard for CAD
is quoted in this article about how the new technical standard establishes
requirements for 3-D digital product images.
To read the article, click
This article by Brent Haight was featured in Automotive
Industries, October 2003. Automotive
Industries is a monthly publication devoted to providing global coverage
of all aspects of the automobile marketplace.
Dimensioning and Tolerancing: Why?
This article explains
why GD&T is important to design. Other articles are available about
bonus tolerancing, datums, virtual condition and more.
To read the article, click
stands for engineering fundamentals. The site provides information to
aid in the solution of complex design problems.
ETI offers a special
deal on a different product each month. Check out this month's Web
GD&T Trainer Professional Edition now available!
Training Made Easy
GD&T Trainer Professional Edition (Y14.5M-1994) contains 28 student-focused
lessons covering the fundamentals of GD&T. Instant lesson feedback
and quizzes reinforce the material.
Click for animation
include a GD&T glossary, tolerancing application and inspection
examples, audio narration, full-color technical animations, 3-D solid
part examples, and a certification exam.
To read more about it, Click
To download a demo,
GD&T Trainer Professional Edition is cross-referenced with the
"Ultimate" GD&T reference tool. . .
Economical Tool You Can't Afford To Miss
this pocket-sized reference with you on the job and have a resource
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At only $5.50, you can order one for each member of your team!
read more about it, Click
kits provide teaching materials on CD-ROM.
Kits Have Gone Digital:
Fundamentals of GD&T
Each Digital Instructor's
Kit contains all the materials you need to teach an entire course on
one handy CD-ROM.
To read more about
Advanced Concepts taught by the experts. . .
Concepts of GD&T Textbook
The textbook stresses
the applications of GD&T in industry and takes an in-depth look at
many GD&T topics. Position, profile, and datums are are covered in
detail. Covers common industry tolerancing practices not documented in
ASME Y14.5M-1994. An indispensable on-the-job reference.
To read more about
of stacks separates the exceptional engineers from
Tolerance Stacks With On-The-Job Focus
Our stacks textbook
stresses applications found in actual industrial situations. Solve tolerance
stack problems involving flatness, straightness, tolerance of position,
runout, concentricity, and more. Practice stacks from actual drawings
are provided in the Drawing Package.
To read more about
offers convenient, customized, onsite training in fundamentals, advanced
concepts and stacks.
800-886-0909 to schedule your next workshop, today.
Offers On-Site Training
brings GD&T instruction right to your location. Workshops can be customized
to include your drawings and parts.
To find out more about what ETI has to offer your organization.
web-based training, see the
ETI Learning Center.
Web-Based Training Available
The new ETI
Learning Center brings GD&T training to your doorstep.
now for the GM
Addendum, an in-depth look at the major areas of impact the GM Addendum
has on drawings that use the ASME Y14.5M-1994 interpretation of dimensioning
soon: GD&T fundamentals and a GD&T overview.
To find out more about the ETI Learning Center,
Discussion Board: Talk about GD&T issues with other peers and professionals.
ETI'S Discussion Board
ETI's website has an interactive forum that's easy to access and may give
you a broader knowledge of GD&T-related topics. Drop by the Interact section
of our website and take a look at the Discussion Board.
the board, click
cannot inspect quality into a process.
Harold F. Dodge
James Myers, Dept. Mgr.
is a regular online publication devoted to Geometric Dimensioning &
Tolerancing. Each edition features a host of GD&T resources and links,
as well as dimensioning tips by noted GD&T author and ETI founder,
Alex Krulikowski. We also invite you to visit our website, etinews.com.
To view past issues of ETImail, see the archives.
ETImail is now available in PDF
format. To read the PDF file, you will need Adobe
are this issue's highlights. Click on any link to jump directly
to a feature:
Article: How to train employees
in a tough economy
in the News: The
importance of software standards
ETI Mailbag: Datum
simulation, report profiles, and "GD&T" in ASME Y14.5M-1994
The top 21 reasons to use GD&T on low
Comments from readers about prior issues
In the sidebar:
Highlights: ASME Standard for CAD
and why GD&T is important to design
Products: GD&T Trainer Professional
Edition, Advanced Concepts and Stacks products
Services: Onsite and Online Training;
Employment Opportunities Board; Discussion Board
Features: Quality Quote of the
You Can Afford Training:
Computer-Based Training Provides Economical Training During Tough
The instability of
the economy, global competition, and corporate downsizing have taken their
toll on industry. In tough financial times, there is a lot of pressure
to reduce costs, and training budgets are often slashed. At the same time,
more than ever before, there is a need for companies to invest in training
programs that will produce skilled employees who are well-trained and
knowledgable about today's technology. Companies that aren't cutting their
training budgets completely are seeking more cost effective training methods.
The predicament of training during a slow economy is highlighted in the
article, "National Training Trends," (Corporate Training News,
Winter 2004, Issue 6). The article cites Training Magazine's 22nd annual
U.S. comprehensive analysis of employer sponsored training for 2003:
Clearly the difficult
U.S. economy has had an impact on training and the survey results indicate
this. Tammy Galvin, Executive Editor of Training Magazine, reports several
findings which reflect the impact of the three year economic downturn:
• U.S. employers
spent six percent less, or $3 billion, in employee development.
• This is the fourth time in 22 years that employers have spent
less from one year to the next.
• This is the first time that there has been two consecutive years
in which employers reduced the amount spent on training.
• There was a nine percent drop in expenditures on seminars and
• Only 35% of training events went to nonexempt employees, about
$3 billion less than last year.
• There was a five percent drop
in classroom training.
• Nationally there was a 12% increase in
self-paced education, especially e-learning.
According to this
survey, money spent on traditional training methods has declined, yet
"self-paced education" has shown an increase. It's obvious that
newer, more economical training methods are important to survive this
training from a budget doesn't save money
What about those companies cited who reduced the amount spent on training?
Does reducing the training budget really help a company save money? The
tendency to cut training in an attempt to save company expenditures can
backfire according to Eva Kaplan-Leiserson ("Training in a Downturn,"
Training & Development, Jan, 2002):
In an article published
by the Center for Effective Performance, president and CEO Seth Leibler
cites an American Management Association report that demonstrates a
direct link between a downsized company's improved performance and an
increase in training expenditures after layoffs. In
contrast, research on companies that laid off workers in the 1980s and
1990s and didn't increase training budgets found that cost savings often
failed to materialize and that quality, productivity, and effectiveness
continued to fall up to four years after the layoffs.
It's obvious the attempt
to save money by cutting a training budget can cost a company more money
in the long run. Because employees are not up to date with the latest
technology and necessary training, "quality, productivity, and effectiveness"
begin to suffer. As I've explained in many articles about the importance
of GD&T, a company cannot produce a poor quality product and survive
in this competitive economy. Companies must find a more efficient way
to train employees. It appears that the training budget is not the place
to cut corners if a company wants to continue to thrive.
GD&T training saves money in two ways
To ensure a quality product and survive in today's unstable economy, companies
must continue to train employees; however, they obviously must utilize
the best, most cost efficient training available. In the manufacturing
industry, computer-based training in geometric dimensioning and tolerancing
can help companies save money in two ways:
1. The proper
use of GD&T on industrial drawings can ensure a quality product
Consistent, convenient and economical GD&T training will save training
This article doesn't
cover the benefits of GD&T, but many companies realize it is a precise
language that helps save money by eliminating vague drawings and drawing
errors. The cost of drawing errors can skyrocket by the time a product
reaches production, and GD&T ensures a quality product, less scrap
and a variety of other money-saving benefits. However, it must be used
properly to ensure these benefits and that's where training comes in.
Without proper training, GD&T may not help your company save money.
When it comes to training
employees in the fundamentals of GD&T, ETI's newest training software
provides instruction in the most cost-effective format available. The
GD&T Trainer Professional Edition (ASME Y14.5M-1994), provides interactive
training that closely mirrors classroom training, but at remarkably less
cost. Take a look at the cost comparison between computer-based training
(CBT) and traditional training methods.
As you can see, using
a computer-based training method means you can teach more employees for
less money. The cost of training ten employees at a workshop or in a classroom
is higher than training the same group with a computer-based method. However,
the more you train, the more the savings increase. Using CBT to train
100 - or even 500 employees - means your savings are multiplied. Using
computer-based GD&T training to teach your employees the fundamentals
of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing is a viable, cost effective
alternative to outside training.
is as effective as traditional training methods
Because computer-based training is a considerably new training format,
many companies fear that employees won't learn as effectively, or that
the training doesn't stack up when compared to classroom or workshop training.
However, technology has vastly improved the effectiveness of today's CBT
programs. Besides incorporating features that provide many of the benefits
of classroom training like instant feedback, extra instructor tips,
visual reinforcement, and audio narration for those who are auditory learners
CBT also allows a student to proceed at his or her individual pace.
Students can even repeat lessons if necessary and train when it's most
The GD&T Trainer
Professional Edition utilizes technological innovations that make it more
effective than classroom training:
interactive lessons provide instant feedback & measurable progress
One benefit of classroom training is feedback. Students learn a concept
and are often quizzed on the material in order to help with their retention.
The GD&T PE contains over 400 practice questions within its lessons.
Once a concept is explained, the student chooses the best answer to
a practice question that refers to the topic. The student instantly
receives feedback on his/her selection and cannot proceed until the
correct answer is selected. At the end of the lesson, a quiz provides
a measure of student progress as well as more reinforcement. The student
can see which answers were answered incorrectly, and practice those
concepts more. Once the course is completed, the final exam helps test
the student's mastery of the subject. All of these tools provide consistent
reinforcement that help students retain what they've learned. The software
actually provides more feedback than live classroom training.
lessons and 3D part drawings help students visualize GD&T's application
In classroom training, an instructor may bring visual aids to help students
understand particular topics. The GD&T Professional Edition provides
animated screens and 3D part drawings that visually reinforce difficult
concepts. For example, when learning how to inspect a geometric control,
an animation shows a part rotating in a gage, which provides a fascinating
way for students to visualize the application of GD&T on the job.
A drawing in 3D gives a better perspective to part assembly. Both devices
aid in comprehension and help students understand how to apply the knowledge
to the job.
than 100 author's comments give students more insight
One benefit of the classroom is that the instructor can throw in some
added wisdom about a particular topic. The GD&T Professional Edition incorporates
author's comments to do just that. Over 100 comments interspersed throughout
the course give students more information about topics and point them
to where they can find out more about related applications. This provides
a means for me to give students the benefit of my 30 years of GD&T
experience and comment on GD&T applications just as I do during
glossary of over 150 GD&T terms is a valuable student resource
Students often forget the meaning of terms when learning new concepts.
In the classroom, they may access a textbook. The GD&T Trainer Professional
Edition brings the terms into the lessons in the form of "hotwords."
Whenever the term appears in a lesson it is linked to its definition
in the glossary. Students can immediately access the definitions and
can also use the glossary outside the course as an on-the-job reference.
of 150 terms and definitions can also be used as a reference outside the
are cross-referenced with GD&T Ultimate Pocket Guide pages
We have cross-referenced lesson pages in the course with pages in our
GD&T Ultimate Pocket Guide. During training sessions, this provides
another reinforcement because the pocket guide pages summarize and reinforce
topics being studied. After training, the pocket-sized reference can
be carried on the job and utilized whenever it's needed.
benefits of the GD&T Trainer Professional Edition
There is no doubt that traditional classroom training is valuable. However,
we have just seen that technology has allowed CBT to closely mirror the
benefits of classroom training. The GD&T Trainer Professional Edition
has a few extra benefits that even surpass classroom training:
lessons guarantee active learning
Students learn best by doing, yet traditional lecture formats instigate
passive learning. The GD&T Trainer Professional Edition's interactive,
student-focused lessons guarantee that students are more actively involved
in the learning process. Students engaged in a learning process have
a higher retention level than those who are merely passive learners.
individualized instruction by a GD&T expert
instructors are teachers with no experience using GD&T on the job.
Other instructors are industry professionals with no teaching credentials.
I have combined thirty years of industry experience with a degree in
industrial vocational education to create a course that uses the best
adult teaching methods as well as a complete understanding GD&T's
application on the job. Since the GD&T Trainer Professional Edition
is somewhat like having an
individual tutor, each student trains "one-on-one" with a
skilled, experienced instructor, which surpasses classroom training.
learn at their own pace and when it's convenient
In a workshop or classroom, a student must keep the pace with the rest
of the class. Of course, he or she must also be present for the lecture
in the first place! CBT eliminates the need to schedule around training
and allows students to learn at their own pace. Students benefit because
they can learn better and more thoroughly when taking time to absorb
topics; companies benefit because there are no scheduling conflicts,
workshop expenses, and travel costs.
employees receive consistent training
There are no guarantees that two students taking a GD&T
course in two different classrooms will receive the same training. Even
if the workshops use the same teaching materials, lecture styles vary
among instructors: some are proficient in different aspects of GD&T,
and some are more experienced with the application of GD&T than
others. Using the GD&T Trainer Professional Edition provides consistent
training year after year using materials created by an industry professional.
All of your employees will achieve the same level of understanding whenever
and wherever they take the course.
Trainer Professional Edition is an effective, affordable training option
As you can see, computer-based
training is a practical alternative to traditional training methods. For
over five years, I have worked closely with ETI's product development
team to incorporate my fundamentals of GD&T course into the best computer-based
training available, and I am very excited about this software. If your
company realizes the need for GD&T training and wants to utilize the
most consistent, economical and convenient training available, give the
GD&T Trainer Professional Edition a try. You can download a free demo
and experience this "virtual classroom" in the fundamentals
of GD&T yourself at www.etinews.com/trainer.
I know you'll be amazed at the superior training this program provides
and that you'll realize this is the best training option for your company's
Trainer Professional Edition is available in a variety of versions
suitable for individuals, companies, and corporations. To
discuss which version is right for your company, call ETI at 800-886-0909
and talk to a GD&T account executive, today. To download a free
Standards in the News takes a look at real-life issues involving standards.
This month: how to standardize software.
welcome your feedback. Send comments about this article to ETImailbag.
Your opinions will be posted in the next issue.
This article may be reprinted free for use by
your organization if our Reprint
Policy is followed.
Excerpt from the OSNews.com
IMPORTANCE OF SOFTWARE STANDARDS
in the News looks at current issues regarding the use of standards and
the problems that result from their misuse. This issue highlights an article
by contributing author David Howe in OS News.
In a local office
somewhere near you, someone wants to send someone else a electronic document.
Once there was a fairly broad agreement about the way such documents were
prepared and delivered, before the advent of the computers and the Internet.
Today there is also
a fairly universal agreement about how such tasks are carried out, central
to achieving this fairly common task is the ubiquitous Microsoft Word.
With a form of Windows on virtually every corporate desktop, the pervasiveness
of Word documents in business is understandable. MS Word and .doc may
appear to be a standard way of doing business but are they a standard?
adoption by large corporations and government of .doc as a standard form
of electronic documentation is profoundly wrong, it is largely responsible
for the single largest amassed fortune in recent history and has unfortunately
also created a defacto standard that undermines a fundamental process
in the world of business and government, the process of standardization.
What do we mean by
standards anyway? Why bother? How do they fit into the computing picture?
Standards are relatively
commonplace and provide important functions in the world of commerce and
industry. Ranging from common standards for measurements to complex standards
for business accounting, they help to define benchmarks by which things
or processes can be measured.
from the article, "The Importance of Software Standards," by
contributing author David Howe, in the April 29, 2004, issue of OS
second edition page 153, a gage is shown as a datum feature simulator.
How is this gage actually used to inspect the position of the 8.8/8.4
feature of size? Is the gage used to simulate the datum axis? Is an additional
inspection tool used with this simulator to inspect the position of the
8.8/8.4 feature of size?
Click for larger view
Figure 6-8, the example only shows how to simulate the datum axis. An
additional gage element would have to be used to the the location of the
8.8/8/4 feature of size Since this chapter only deals with simulating
datums, I thought it was better to only show the datum simulation in the
figure. However, I do get this question from time to time.
have a profile tolerance of .010 bilateral +/-.005 my measured points
run from +.005 to -.007. We need to state the actual condition of the
profile relative to the .010 profile tolerance and how much over tolerance
to the .010 profile. The report states: profile varies from +.005 to -.007
the .010 profile is .012 or .002 over the .010 allowed. Is the profile
.012 or .014? That is the question.
far as I know there is no standard way of reporting profile error in an
question was on whether to report the profile as .012 or .014? If limited
to these two options, I would use the .012. However, that is misleading
because it implies +/- .006 and the max reading was .007. (Reporting .014
has a similar problem) Another way to consider is to report the requirement
as "Profile +/- .005" and the actual value as "+.005/ -.007."
your web site (http://www.etinews.com/gdt_what_is_gd&t.html), you
pose and then answer the following question:
GD&T stands for Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing, as defined
by ASME Y14.5M-1994.
I'm studying a
copy of ASME Y14.5M-1994. Where in that standard is the term "GD&T"
or "geometric dimensioning and tolerancing" defined?
comment on not being able to locate the definition of GD&T in the
Y14.5 standard is an excellent observation. The term GD&T is so common
in the standards community that we use this term without a specific definition
The term "Geometric
Dimensioning and Tolerancing" is not found in the definition section
of the Y14.5 Standard. However, it is used in the Standard on page 203,
and several variations of the term are used approx. 40 places throughout
the Standard. In addition, the term "GD&T" is used in Y14.5.2
on the front cover and seven places within the Standard. Also, in ASME
Y14.5.1 paragraph 1.1 the term "Geometrical Dimensioning and Tolerancing"
is used to refer to the tolerances in Y14.5.
You are correct;
the term "Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing" is not explicitly
defined in Y14.5. However it is the most recognized term for referring
to the topics covered in the Y14.5 standard. I hope this answers your
appreciates your questions and comments.
Send your GD&T questions to: ETImailbag.
teaching ideas to new products that will assist you in training or on the
job, the ETImail Tech Tip will keep you informed about new technology and
training trends. This month's Tech Tip: 21 good reasons to use GD&T
on low volume parts.
21 REASONS TO USE GD&T ON LOW VOLUME PARTS
as it may seem, some companies still need convincing that GD&T will
ensure better design and improve productivity. Here are 21 reasons to
use GD&T on low volume parts.
The proper use
of GD&T will enable you to. . .
- Create a part
design that focuses on the product function.
- Convert product
requirements into dimensional specifications.
- Better define parts
without the need for assumptions.
- Document the design
for future use.
- Discover problems
in the design stage.
- Ensure that parts
- Have less "hand
fitting" at assembly.
- Ensure that parts
are inspected as intended.
- Inspect parts more
- Specify additional
tolerance for the manufacture of parts.
- Reduce scrap or
- Make a replacement
that fits into the assembly.
- Have multiple sources
on various parts of an assembly.
- Have critical dimensions
that will be related to product function.
- Make valid engineering
- Have common parts
across similar assemblies.
- Design subassemblies
in different locations and have them function correctly.
- Do tolerance analysis
to study the effect of part tolerances on the assembly.
- Use state of the
art software tools to analyze parts in an assembly.
- Use state of the
art software tools to inspect the parts.
- Reduce the risk
due to vague specifications.
and print a free Top 21 Reasons to Use GD&T chart.
Effective Training would like you to have a free copy of our Top 21 Reasons
to Use GD&T chart. The printable chart is 11" x 17" and
in pdf format. For a free copy of the chart, click
you know about a new tech tool or an innovative idea that would
our readers, please write us: ETImailbag.
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comments here and provide a forum for more discussion about GD&T
ETImail is read by thousands of GD&T professionals
around the world. Here are some comments from new subscribers:
di Torino, Italy
Thank you! I enjoyed Issue 10 of ETImail. Maurizio Orlando
I found it very interesting! Yared Melesse
Excellent website on GD&T. Harsha Kumar, B.S.
I would like to upgrade myself in the field of dimensioning and tolerancing.
Thanks for offering such amazing stuff for us. Great job! Jimmy
I would like to receive your letters in order to share experiences and
knowledge. Regards, Heriberto Benitez
interesting information in regards to parts tolerancing. Rudy
would like to receive your tips about the GD&T topics. Marcos
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up to date information. Terence Tan Tian Ding
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