Effective Training Inc., Westland  MI,  734.728.0909  
Volume 01: Issue 11

Alex Krulikowski is a noted educator, author, and expert on Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T). He has a degree in industrial vocational education and more than 30 years of industrial experience putting GD&T to practical use on the shop floor. 

Alex is the prolific author of several books on GD&T. He has taught GD&T to tens of thousands through workshops, books, videos, and computer-based training.

Web Highlights

New ASME Standard for CAD
Alex is quoted in this article about how the new technical standard establishes requirements for 3-D digital product images.

To read the article,
click here

This article by Brent Haight was featured in Automotive Industries, October 2003.
Automotive Industries is a monthly publication devoted to providing global coverage of all aspects of the automobile marketplace.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing: Why?
This article explains why GD&T is important to design. Other articles are available about bonus tolerancing, datums, virtual condition and more.

To read the article,
click here

eFunda stands for engineering fundamentals. The site provides information to aid in the solution of complex design problems.

Back to top





ETI Products

Monthly Web Special
ETI offers a special deal on a different product each month. Check out this month's Web Special.

Back to top



The GD&T Trainer Professional Edition now available!


GD&T Training Made Easy
The GD&T Trainer Professional Edition (Y14.5M-1994) contains 28 student-focused lessons covering the fundamentals of GD&T. Instant lesson feedback and quizzes reinforce the material.

Click for animation sample

Highlights include a GD&T glossary, tolerancing application and inspection examples, audio narration, full-color technical animations, 3-D solid part examples, and a certification exam.
To read more about it,
Click here

To download a demo, Click here

Back to top




The GD&T Trainer Professional Edition is cross-referenced with the "Ultimate" GD&T reference tool. . .


An Economical Tool You Can't Afford To Miss
Carry this pocket-sized reference with you on the job and have a resource to all your GD&T questions at your fingertips. Includes over 50 detailed drawings, GD&T symbols/modifiers, datum application examples, surface texture, composite tolerancing, conversion charts and more...

At only $5.50, you can order one for each member of your team!

To read more about it, Click here

Back to top




Digital kits provide teaching materials on CD-ROM.


Instructor Kits Have Gone Digital:
Fundamentals of GD&T
Advanced Concepts
Tolerance Stacks

Each Digital Instructor's Kit contains all the materials you need to teach an entire course on one handy CD-ROM.
To read more about them, Click here


Back to top





GD&T Advanced Concepts taught by the experts. . .


Advanced Concepts of GD&T Textbook
The textbook stresses the applications of GD&T in industry and takes an in-depth look at many GD&T topics. Position, profile, and datums are are covered in detail. Covers common industry tolerancing practices not documented in ASME Y14.5M-1994. An indispensable on-the-job reference.
To read more about it, Click here

Back to top




Knowledge of stacks separates the exceptional engineers from
the rest.


Learn Tolerance Stacks With On-The-Job Focus
Our stacks textbook stresses applications found in actual industrial situations. Solve tolerance stack problems involving flatness, straightness, tolerance of position, runout, concentricity, and more. Practice stacks from actual drawings are provided in the Drawing Package.

To read more about it, Click here

Back to top





ETI Services

ETI offers convenient, customized, onsite training in fundamentals, advanced concepts and stacks.

Call 800-886-0909 to schedule your next workshop, today.



ETI Offers On-Site Training 
Effective Training brings GD&T instruction right to your location. Workshops can be customized to include your drawings and parts.

To find out more about what ETI has to offer your organization.
Click here

Back to top




For web-based training, see the
ETI Learning Center

GD&T Web-Based Training Available
The new ETI Learning Center brings GD&T training to your doorstep.

Register now for the GM Addendum, an in-depth look at the major areas of impact the GM Addendum has on drawings that use the ASME Y14.5M-1994 interpretation of dimensioning and tolerancing.

Coming soon: GD&T fundamentals and a GD&T overview.

To find out more about the ETI Learning Center,
Click here




ETI's Discussion Board: Talk about GD&T issues with other peers and professionals.


ETI'S Discussion Board

ETI's website has an interactive forum that's easy to access and may give you a broader knowledge of GD&T-related topics. Drop by the Interact section of our website and take a look at the Discussion Board.

To visit the board, click here.

Back to top



Quality Quote

You cannot inspect quality into a process.
Harold F. Dodge

Back to top


ETI Staff

Alex Krulikowski

Product Development
Jamy Krulikowski

James Myers, Dept. Mgr.
Branny Mrljak

Website/Internet Svcs.
Brandon Billings

Graphic Designer
Matthew Pride

Network Administrator
Chris Wioskowski

Katherine Palmer

Financial Administrator
Tina White

Order Processing
Gary Walls

Lindsay Carlington


ETImail is a regular online publication devoted to Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing. Each edition features a host of GD&T resources and links, as well as dimensioning tips by noted GD&T author and ETI founder, Alex Krulikowski. We also invite you to visit our website, etinews.com. To view past issues of ETImail, see the archives.

ETImail is now available in PDF format. To read the PDF file, you will need Adobe Acrobat Reader.

In This Issue
Here are this issue's highlights. Click on any link to jump directly to a feature:

Featured Article: How to train employees in a tough economy
Standards in the News: The importance of software standards
ETI Mailbag: Datum simulation, report profiles, and "GD&T" in ASME Y14.5M-1994
TechTip: The top 21 reasons to use GD&T on low volume parts
Feedback: Comments from readers about prior issues

In the sidebar:
Web Highlights: ASME Standard for CAD and why GD&T is important to design
ETI Products: GD&T Trainer Professional Edition, Advanced Concepts and Stacks products
ETI Services: Onsite and Online Training; Employment Opportunities Board; Discussion Board
Other Features: Quality Quote of the month


You Can Afford Training:
Computer-Based Training Provides Economical Training During Tough Financial Times

Alex Krulikowski

The instability of the economy, global competition, and corporate downsizing have taken their toll on industry. In tough financial times, there is a lot of pressure to reduce costs, and training budgets are often slashed. At the same time, more than ever before, there is a need for companies to invest in training programs that will produce skilled employees who are well-trained and knowledgable about today's technology. Companies that aren't cutting their training budgets completely are seeking more cost effective training methods.

Traditional training decreases
The predicament of training during a slow economy is highlighted in the article, "National Training Trends," (Corporate Training News, Winter 2004, Issue 6). The article cites Training Magazine's 22nd annual U.S. comprehensive analysis of employer sponsored training for 2003:

Clearly the difficult U.S. economy has had an impact on training and the survey results indicate this. Tammy Galvin, Executive Editor of Training Magazine, reports several findings which reflect the impact of the three year economic downturn:

• U.S. employers spent six percent less, or $3 billion, in employee development.
• This is the fourth time in 22 years that employers have spent less from one year to the next.
• This is the first time that there has been two consecutive years in which employers reduced the amount spent on training.
• There was a nine percent drop in expenditures on seminars and conferences.
• Only 35% of training events went to nonexempt employees, about $3 billion less than last year.
There was a five percent drop in classroom training.
Nationally there was a 12% increase in self-paced education, especially e-learning.

According to this survey, money spent on traditional training methods has declined, yet "self-paced education" has shown an increase. It's obvious that newer, more economical training methods are important to survive this unstable economy.

Cutting training from a budget doesn't save money
What about those companies cited who reduced the amount spent on training? Does reducing the training budget really help a company save money? The tendency to cut training in an attempt to save company expenditures can backfire according to Eva Kaplan-Leiserson ("Training in a Downturn," Training & Development, Jan, 2002):

In an article published by the Center for Effective Performance, president and CEO Seth Leibler cites an American Management Association report that demonstrates a direct link between a downsized company's improved performance and an increase in training expenditures after layoffs. In contrast, research on companies that laid off workers in the 1980s and 1990s and didn't increase training budgets found that cost savings often failed to materialize and that quality, productivity, and effectiveness continued to fall up to four years after the layoffs.

It's obvious the attempt to save money by cutting a training budget can cost a company more money in the long run. Because employees are not up to date with the latest technology and necessary training, "quality, productivity, and effectiveness" begin to suffer. As I've explained in many articles about the importance of GD&T, a company cannot produce a poor quality product and survive in this competitive economy. Companies must find a more efficient way to train employees. It appears that the training budget is not the place to cut corners if a company wants to continue to thrive.

Computer-based GD&T training saves money in two ways
To ensure a quality product and survive in today's unstable economy, companies must continue to train employees; however, they obviously must utilize the best, most cost efficient training available. In the manufacturing industry, computer-based training in geometric dimensioning and tolerancing can help companies save money in two ways:

1. The proper use of GD&T on industrial drawings can ensure a quality product
2. Consistent, convenient and economical GD&T training will save training dollars

This article doesn't cover the benefits of GD&T, but many companies realize it is a precise language that helps save money by eliminating vague drawings and drawing errors. The cost of drawing errors can skyrocket by the time a product reaches production, and GD&T ensures a quality product, less scrap and a variety of other money-saving benefits. However, it must be used properly to ensure these benefits and that's where training comes in. Without proper training, GD&T may not help your company save money.

When it comes to training employees in the fundamentals of GD&T, ETI's newest training software provides instruction in the most cost-effective format available. The GD&T Trainer Professional Edition (ASME Y14.5M-1994), provides interactive training that closely mirrors classroom training, but at remarkably less cost. Take a look at the cost comparison between computer-based training (CBT) and traditional training methods.

As you can see, using a computer-based training method means you can teach more employees for less money. The cost of training ten employees at a workshop or in a classroom is higher than training the same group with a computer-based method. However, the more you train, the more the savings increase. Using CBT to train 100 - or even 500 employees - means your savings are multiplied. Using computer-based GD&T training to teach your employees the fundamentals of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing is a viable, cost effective alternative to outside training.

CBT is as effective as traditional training methods
Because computer-based training is a considerably new training format, many companies fear that employees won't learn as effectively, or that the training doesn't stack up when compared to classroom or workshop training. However, technology has vastly improved the effectiveness of today's CBT programs. Besides incorporating features that provide many of the benefits of classroom training — like instant feedback, extra instructor tips, visual reinforcement, and audio narration for those who are auditory learners — CBT also allows a student to proceed at his or her individual pace. Students can even repeat lessons if necessary and train when it's most convenient.

The GD&T Trainer Professional Edition utilizes technological innovations that make it more effective than classroom training:

Twenty-eight interactive lessons provide instant feedback & measurable progress
One benefit of classroom training is feedback. Students learn a concept and are often quizzed on the material in order to help with their retention. The GD&T PE contains over 400 practice questions within its lessons. Once a concept is explained, the student chooses the best answer to a practice question that refers to the topic. The student instantly receives feedback on his/her selection and cannot proceed until the correct answer is selected. At the end of the lesson, a quiz provides a measure of student progress as well as more reinforcement. The student can see which answers were answered incorrectly, and practice those concepts more. Once the course is completed, the final exam helps test the student's mastery of the subject. All of these tools provide consistent reinforcement that help students retain what they've learned. The software actually provides more feedback than live classroom training.

Animated lessons and 3D part drawings help students visualize GD&T's application
In classroom training, an instructor may bring visual aids to help students understand particular topics. The GD&T Professional Edition provides animated screens and 3D part drawings that visually reinforce difficult concepts. For example, when learning how to inspect a geometric control, an animation shows a part rotating in a gage, which provides a fascinating way for students to visualize the application of GD&T on the job. A drawing in 3D gives a better perspective to part assembly. Both devices aid in comprehension and help students understand how to apply the knowledge to the job.

More than 100 author's comments give students more insight
One benefit of the classroom is that the instructor can throw in some added wisdom about a particular topic. The GD&T Professional Edition incorporates author's comments to do just that. Over 100 comments interspersed throughout the course give students more information about topics and point them to where they can find out more about related applications. This provides a means for me to give students the benefit of my 30 years of GD&T experience and comment on GD&T applications just as I do during lectures.

A glossary of over 150 GD&T terms is a valuable student resource
Students often forget the meaning of terms when learning new concepts. In the classroom, they may access a textbook. The GD&T Trainer Professional Edition brings the terms into the lessons in the form of "hotwords." Whenever the term appears in a lesson it is linked to its definition in the glossary. Students can immediately access the definitions and can also use the glossary outside the course as an on-the-job reference.

The glossary of 150 terms and definitions can also be used as a reference outside the course.

Lessons are cross-referenced with GD&T Ultimate Pocket Guide pages
We have cross-referenced lesson pages in the course with pages in our GD&T Ultimate Pocket Guide. During training sessions, this provides another reinforcement because the pocket guide pages summarize and reinforce topics being studied. After training, the pocket-sized reference can be carried on the job and utilized whenever it's needed.

Additional benefits of the GD&T Trainer Professional Edition
There is no doubt that traditional classroom training is valuable. However, we have just seen that technology has allowed CBT to closely mirror the benefits of classroom training. The GD&T Trainer Professional Edition has a few extra benefits that even surpass classroom training:

Student-focused lessons guarantee active learning
Students learn best by doing, yet traditional lecture formats instigate passive learning. The GD&T Trainer Professional Edition's interactive, student-focused lessons guarantee that students are more actively involved in the learning process. Students engaged in a learning process have a higher retention level than those who are merely passive learners.

Each student receives individualized instruction by a GD&T expert
Some instructors are teachers with no experience using GD&T on the job. Other instructors are industry professionals with no teaching credentials. I have combined thirty years of industry experience with a degree in industrial vocational education to create a course that uses the best adult teaching methods as well as a complete understanding GD&T's application on the job. Since the GD&T Trainer Professional Edition is somewhat like having an individual tutor, each student trains "one-on-one" with a skilled, experienced instructor, which surpasses classroom training.

Students learn at their own pace and when it's convenient
In a workshop or classroom, a student must keep the pace with the rest of the class. Of course, he or she must also be present for the lecture in the first place! CBT eliminates the need to schedule around training and allows students to learn at their own pace. Students benefit because they can learn better and more thoroughly when taking time to absorb topics; companies benefit because there are no scheduling conflicts, workshop expenses, and travel costs.

All employees receive consistent training
There are no guarantees that two students taking a GD&T course in two different classrooms will receive the same training. Even if the workshops use the same teaching materials, lecture styles vary among instructors: some are proficient in different aspects of GD&T, and some are more experienced with the application of GD&T than others. Using the GD&T Trainer Professional Edition provides consistent training year after year using materials created by an industry professional. All of your employees will achieve the same level of understanding whenever and wherever they take the course.

The GD&T Trainer Professional Edition is an effective, affordable training option

As you can see, computer-based training is a practical alternative to traditional training methods. For over five years, I have worked closely with ETI's product development team to incorporate my fundamentals of GD&T course into the best computer-based training available, and I am very excited about this software. If your company realizes the need for GD&T training and wants to utilize the most consistent, economical and convenient training available, give the GD&T Trainer Professional Edition a try. You can download a free demo and experience this "virtual classroom" in the fundamentals of GD&T yourself at www.etinews.com/trainer. I know you'll be amazed at the superior training this program provides and that you'll realize this is the best training option for your company's training needs.

The GD&T Trainer Professional Edition is available in a variety of versions suitable for individuals, companies, and corporations. To discuss which version is right for your company, call ETI at 800-886-0909 and talk to a GD&T account executive, today. To download a free demo, click here.


We welcome your feedback. Send comments about this article to ETImailbag.
Your opinions will be posted in the next issue.

This article may be reprinted free for use by your organization if our Reprint Policy is followed.

Back to top



Standards in the News

ETImail's Standards in the News takes a look at real-life issues involving standards. This month: how to standardize software.

Excerpt from the OSNews.com Website

Standards in the News looks at current issues regarding the use of standards —and the problems that result from their misuse. This issue highlights an article by contributing author David Howe in OS News.

In a local office somewhere near you, someone wants to send someone else a electronic document. Once there was a fairly broad agreement about the way such documents were prepared and delivered, before the advent of the computers and the Internet.

Today there is also a fairly universal agreement about how such tasks are carried out, central to achieving this fairly common task is the ubiquitous Microsoft Word. With a form of Windows on virtually every corporate desktop, the pervasiveness of Word documents in business is understandable. MS Word and .doc may appear to be a standard way of doing business but are they a standard?

The wholesale adoption by large corporations and government of .doc as a standard form of electronic documentation is profoundly wrong, it is largely responsible for the single largest amassed fortune in recent history and has unfortunately also created a defacto standard that undermines a fundamental process in the world of business and government, the process of standardization.

What do we mean by standards anyway? Why bother? How do they fit into the computing picture?

Standards are relatively commonplace and provide important functions in the world of commerce and industry. Ranging from common standards for measurements to complex standards for business accounting, they help to define benchmarks by which things or processes can be measured.
Full story

Excerpted from the article, "The Importance of Software Standards," by contributing author David Howe, in the April 29, 2004, issue of OS News online.

Back to top



The ETI Mailbag

Hi Alex,

In the Fundamentals of GD&T second edition page 153, a gage is shown as a datum feature simulator. How is this gage actually used to inspect the position of the 8.8/8.4 feature of size? Is the gage used to simulate the datum axis? Is an additional inspection tool used with this simulator to inspect the position of the 8.8/8.4 feature of size?

Click for larger view

In Figure 6-8, the example only shows how to simulate the datum axis. An additional gage element would have to be used to the the location of the 8.8/8/4 feature of size Since this chapter only deals with simulating datums, I thought it was better to only show the datum simulation in the figure. However, I do get this question from time to time.


I have a profile tolerance of .010 bilateral +/-.005 my measured points run from +.005 to -.007. We need to state the actual condition of the profile relative to the .010 profile tolerance and how much over tolerance to the .010 profile. The report states: profile varies from +.005 to -.007 the .010 profile is .012 or .002 over the .010 allowed. Is the profile .012 or .014? That is the question.

As far as I know there is no standard way of reporting profile error in an inspection report.

Your question was on whether to report the profile as .012 or .014? If limited to these two options, I would use the .012. However, that is misleading because it implies +/- .006 and the max reading was .007. (Reporting .014 has a similar problem) Another way to consider is to report the requirement as "Profile +/- .005" and the actual value as "+.005/ -.007."


On your web site (http://www.etinews.com/gdt_what_is_gd&t.html), you pose and then answer the following question:

What is GD&T?
GD&T stands for Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing, as defined by ASME Y14.5M-1994.

I'm studying a copy of ASME Y14.5M-1994. Where in that standard is the term "GD&T" or "geometric dimensioning and tolerancing" defined?


Your comment on not being able to locate the definition of GD&T in the Y14.5 standard is an excellent observation. The term GD&T is so common in the standards community that we use this term without a specific definition in Y14.5.

The term "Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing" is not found in the definition section of the Y14.5 Standard. However, it is used in the Standard on page 203, and several variations of the term are used approx. 40 places throughout the Standard. In addition, the term "GD&T" is used in Y14.5.2 on the front cover and seven places within the Standard. Also, in ASME Y14.5.1 paragraph 1.1 the term "Geometrical Dimensioning and Tolerancing" is used to refer to the tolerances in Y14.5.

You are correct; the term "Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing" is not explicitly defined in Y14.5. However it is the most recognized term for referring to the topics covered in the Y14.5 standard. I hope this answers your question.

Best Regards,
Alex Krulikowski

ETI appreciates your questions and comments.
Send your GD&T questions to: ETImailbag.
Back to top


Alex's Tech Tip

From teaching ideas to new products that will assist you in training or on the job, the ETImail Tech Tip will keep you informed about new technology and training trends. This month's Tech Tip: 21 good reasons to use GD&T on low volume parts.

Incredible as it may seem, some companies still need convincing that GD&T will ensure better design and improve productivity. Here are 21 reasons to use GD&T on low volume parts.

The proper use of GD&T will enable you to. . .

  1. Create a part design that focuses on the product function.
  2. Convert product requirements into dimensional specifications.
  3. Better define parts without the need for assumptions.
  4. Document the design for future use.
  5. Discover problems in the design stage.
  6. Ensure that parts will assemble.
  7. Have less "hand fitting" at assembly.
  8. Ensure that parts are inspected as intended.
  9. Inspect parts more quickly.
  10. Specify additional tolerance for the manufacture of parts.
  11. Reduce scrap or rework.
  12. Make a replacement that fits into the assembly.
  13. Have multiple sources on various parts of an assembly.
  14. Have critical dimensions that will be related to product function.
  15. Make valid engineering calculations.
  16. Have common parts across similar assemblies.
  17. Design subassemblies in different locations and have them function correctly.
  18. Do tolerance analysis to study the effect of part tolerances on the assembly.
  19. Use state of the art software tools to analyze parts in an assembly.
  20. Use state of the art software tools to inspect the parts.
  21. Reduce the risk due to vague specifications.

Download and print a free Top 21 Reasons to Use GD&T chart.
Effective Training would like you to have a free copy of our Top 21 Reasons to Use GD&T chart. The printable chart is 11" x 17" and in pdf format. For a free copy of the chart, click here.

If you know about a new tech tool or an innovative idea that would aid 
our readers, please write us: ETImailbag.

Back to top

ETImail Feedback

Have comments about anything you've read in ETImail? ETI will post your comments here and provide a forum for more discussion about GD&T topics.

International Comments
ETImail is read by thousands of GD&T professionals around the world. Here are some comments from new subscribers:

Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Thank you! I enjoyed Issue 10 of ETImail. — Maurizio Orlando

I found it very interesting! — Yared Melesse

Bangalore, India
Excellent website on GD&T. — Harsha Kumar, B.S.

I would like to upgrade myself in the field of dimensioning and tolerancing. — Rajesh M.

Thanks for offering such amazing stuff for us. Great job! — Jimmy Shang

I would like to receive your letters in order to share experiences and knowledge. Regards, Heriberto Benitez

Very interesting information in regards to parts tolerancing. — Rudy Barcenas

I would like to receive your tips about the GD&T topics. — Marcos Rodriguez Lopez

I wish to learn and know more about GD&T and would like to keep up to date information. —Terence Tan Tian Ding

ETI would like to hear from you. If you have an opinion about any ETImail article or feature, please write to our ETImailbag.

We would appreciate it if you'd keep us in mind when you need GD&T training, consulting, or GD&T products. Feel free to contact us by email or by phone at 734-728-0909 or 800-886-0909.

To subscribe to ETImail, click here.
To contact us with questions, comments, or story ideas, click here

To unsubscribe from ETImail, click here.

The contents of this newsletter may be reproduced if our Reprint Policy is followed.

Copyright © 2002, 2004 Effective Training Inc. All rights reserved.